Dickcissels by Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren (CC BY 2.0 DEED)

The cloaca is an essential anatomical feature in birds (the organ also exists in reptiles, amphibians, and some fish). In birds, the cloaca is a single opening located at the base of the tail that serves multiple functions. It is the exit point for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. This means that the cloaca is used for the expulsion of fecal matter, the release of urine, and the transfer of sperm or the laying of eggs.

In summary, the cloaca is a multi-purpose organ that is vital for the biological functions of digestion, excretion, and reproduction in birds.

The multi-use design of the cloaca might seem strange, but it’s a remarkable example of evolutionary efficiency. By having just one opening, birds maintain a lighter body weight, which is crucial for flight. The cloaca’s interior is divided into three chambers to handle the different functionalities. Each chamber has a technical name: the coprodeum is like a rectum and is for receiving feces from the intestines; the urodeum is for both urine and genital products; and the proctodeum, which is involved in storing waste from the other chambers before it is expelled.

House Sparrows mating by Richard Smith (CC BY 2.0 Deed)

In birds, the cloaca plays a crucial role during mating. Most birds do not have external reproductive organs. Instead, in breeding season, the cloacal regions of both male and female birds swell, facilitating the transfer of sperm.

Mating occurs when a male and female bird press their cloacas together in a quick touch that typically lasts less than a second. This behavior is known as the cloacal kiss. The swift action allows the sperm to move from the male to the female to fertilize eggs. The efficiency of this process is vital, as birds often need to mate quickly to avoid predators and to not draw attention to themselves in vulnerable situations.

Despite the quick nature of their mating, birds often engage in complex and lengthy courtship rituals leading up to the cloacal kiss. These rituals can involve dances, songs, gift-giving (like offering food), and other behaviors that strengthen pair bonds and signal the fitness of the potential mate. For birdwatchers, observing these behaviors can be one of the most delightful aspects of monitoring avian life.

Black-headed Gulls mating by Alan Shearman (CC BY 2.0 Deed)

In terms of breeding success, the timing of the cloacal kiss is critical. Many bird species have very specific mating seasons, driven by environmental cues like temperature and day length, which ensure that the subsequent laying of eggs and rearing of chicks occur during times when survival rates will be highest.

Understanding terms like cloaca and cloacal kiss not only deepens our knowledge of bird anatomy and reproductive strategies but also enhances our appreciation for the intricacies of bird life.

Anting 🐜 is a behavior exhibited by some birds in which they allow ants 🐜 to crawl on their feathers and skin, or they actively apply ants, other insects, or substances ants secrete, to their feathers. They do this as part of their preening, or self-care, routine.

Anting is a curious behavior exhibited by a surprisingly wide range of birds – over 200 species across the globe are known to do it.

Anting is one of the most peculiar and fascinating behaviors observed in birds. Those that engage in anting display a curious interaction with ants and other insects. 🐜 This behavior has intrigued ornithologists and bird enthusiasts alike, offering a glimpse into the complex natural behaviors birds have developed to cope with their environments. 🐜

American Robin Anting by ptgbirdlover (CC BY 2.0 Deed)

🐜 Anting typically occurs in two forms: active and passive. In active anting, a bird will pick up ants in its beak and then rub them onto its feathers. In passive anting, a bird will sit directly on an insect nest or move its body around on the ground where the bugs are present, allowing the insects to crawl through its feathers. 🐜 The majority of anting observations involve formic acid-bearing ants, which are believed to play a crucial role in this behavior.

The reasons why birds engage in anting are still not entirely understood by ornithologists, but several theories have been proposed. 🐜 One of the most accepted explanations is that anting helps birds to get rid of parasites and other skin irritants. Ants produce formic acid, a chemical that could potentially help control feather mites and lice. 🐜 By rubbing ants over their bodies, birds might be using the formic acid as a kind of natural pesticide.

Another theory suggests that anting could be a way for birds to soothe irritated skin, particularly during molting when new feathers are growing and old ones are being shed. 🐜 The formic acid might provide a form of relief from the discomfort associated with this process.

Anting may help to regulate a bird's preen oil production. 🐜 Preen oil, secreted from a gland near the base of the tail, keeps feathers waterproof and flexible.  πŸœ The formic acid from the ants could stimulate the preen gland or even supplement the oil itself.

Crows anting by Betsy Howell for U.F Forest Service- Pacific Northwest Region (Public Domain)

There’s also a thought that anting may play a role in the maintenance of a bird's plumage. 🐜 By allowing ants to crawl through their feathers, the ants might be helping to clean the birds, removing debris and possibly even adding a layer of protective substances via the ants' secretions. 🐜

Behaviorally, anting is quite a spectacle. 🐜 Some bird species appear to enter a trance-like state while anting, remaining still and allowing ants to work their way through their feathers for several minutes. The bird may be laying prone on the ground with feathers spread as if it is sunning, as shown in the above photos in this post. The below image of a Black Woodpecker shows the bird standing normally with ants crawling over the feathers. 🐜 Whatever the method, such behavior can be quite entertaining to watch, as birds seem to be completely absorbed in the process.

Black Woodpecker anting in Hungary by Fracesco Veronesi (Public Domain)

Interestingly, not all birds use ants for anting; some have been observed using other materials like cigarette butts, presumably for the chemicals they contain, or even snails and millipedes. 🐜🐜 This substitution suggests that the primary motivation behind anting might be related more broadly to chemical acquisition from various sources, not just ants. 🐜

Some Bird Species Known to Engage in Anting Behavior

Anting behavior varies widely among bird species and is most commonly seen in passerines, or perching birds. Among the well-documented anters 🐜 are species like the Blue Jay, European Starling, and American Crow. 🐜🐜 However, reports indicate that many other species across different families also engage in this behavior, highlighting its widespread nature but variable practice among avians.

Despite its oddity, anting is a significant aspect of avian behavior, pointing to the intricate ways birds interact with their environment to meet their physiological needs. 🐜 It serves as a reminder of the adaptive and sometimes unexpected nature of wildlife, sparking curiosity and wonder among those lucky enough to observe it. 🐜🐜🐜

Swallow Week 2024: Glossary

Swallow Family Glossary: Terms to Help Understanding Swallows

As our week-long celebration of Swallows continues here on the Birdorable blog, we're sharing a glossary of terms related to the family Hirundinidae. Understanding these related terms will help with your understanding of the unique birds in this fascinating cosmopolitan family of insect-feeding birds.

Birdorable Chimney Siwft aerial insectivore

Chimney Swifts are aerial insectivores, catching insects in flight.

Aerial Insectivores

Birds that catch insects in flight, a category that prominently includes swallows.


A genus of birds in the swift family, often confused with swallows due to their similar appearance and flight patterns. Swifts and swallows are, however, different in their wing structure and nesting habits.

Brood Parasitism

A behavior where a bird lays its eggs in the nests of other birds, relying on them to raise their young. Brood parasitism does not only involve mixed species; in their communal nesting colonies, Cliff Swallows have been observed laying eggs in other Cliff Swallow nests.

Diurnal Migration

The pattern of migrating during the day. Swallows, being diurnal, migrate during the day, utilizing the daylight hours for feeding on insects as they move.


The wide opening of a bird's mouth, often significantly large in aerial insectivores to facilitate easy feeding.


A feeding strategy where birds catch insects in mid-air. Swallows are expert hawkers, gracefully capturing prey during flight with precision.


The scientific family name for swallows, from Latin, which encompasses various species of swallows, saw-wings, and martins.

Rictal Bristles

Stiff feather structures around the base of the beak, thought to aid in sensing and catching insects mid-flight. Rictal bristles are present in several aerial insectivorous species, including the swallows, saw-wings, and martins. Rictal bristles are also notable in nighthawks, swifts, and flycatchers -- all specialist aerial insectivores.

Barn Swallow with rictal bristles

Rictal bristles are stiff feathers around the base of the beak to aid in sensing and catching insects mid-flight.


A place where birds gather to rest or sleep. Swallows can form large roosts during migration periods. Unlike many birds that might roost solitarily or in small family groups, swallows gather in large numbers at roosting sites. 

Trans-Saharan Migrants

Refers to birds, including some swallows, that migrate across the Sahara Desert to reach their breeding or wintering grounds.


A German term used in ornithology to describe the increased restlessness in migratory birds, including swallows, as the migration season approaches.

Valentine's Day Bird Term: Billing

Love Is in the Air: Understanding Billing in Birds for Valentine's Day

Birdorable Atlantic Puffins on a cliff in Iceland

In ornithology, the term 'billing' refers to a courtship behavior displayed by certain bird species where two individuals touch, tap, or clasp each other's beaks. It is also known as beak-tapping or bill-tapping. It's called nebbing in British English.

This behavior is often seen in birds that form strong pair bonds and in some ways can be likened to kissing in humans. As today is Valentine's Day (it's always on February 14th), let's look at this interesting bonding behavior, and learn why birds engage in this activity.

Strengthening Pair Bonds
Billing is a sign of affection and helps to strengthen the bond between a mating pair. It is commonly observed in species that mate for life or have long-term partnerships Common Ravens hold each other's bills and feet as part of pair bonding. Atlantic Puffins tap bills quickly as part of their pair bonding behavior, as shown in the video below.

Mutual Grooming
In some cases, billing is part of mutual grooming (allopreening), where birds clean each other's feathers. Rock Pigeons engage in allopreening which includes mutual beak-touching.

Courtship Ritual
Billing is an essential part of the courtship ritual in many species. It is a display of trust and partnership, which can be critical in the mate-selection process. Courting Cedar Waxwings rub their beaks together and pass food to one another. Many albatross species engage in beak-tapping as part of their courtship, like the Waved Albatrosses in the below video.

Territorial and Social Signaling
In some instances, billing can also be a way of demonstrating a pair's territorial bond to other birds, signaling that they are a united and established couple.

Billing is a fascinating aspect of avian behavior that highlights the complex social interactions and emotional connections between birds.

Cute Valentine's Day Gift Ideas from Birdorable

Bird Term: Cosmopolitan

Exploring the Meaning of "Cosmopolitan" in the Avian World

Birdorable Ospreys in locations around the world

Ospreys around the world

Imagine a bird, not confined by national boundaries or familiar landscapes, but a feathered citizen of the world. This is the essence of a cosmopolitan bird species – one that transcends geographic limitations and thrives in a vast tapestry of habitats across the globe. But what exactly does this term mean, and how do birds achieve such remarkable adaptability?

The word cosmopolitan, derived from the Greek kosmopolites, means "citizen of the world."

The core of cosmopolitanism for birds lies in their distribution. Unlike species confined to specific regions or ecological niches, cosmopolitan birds boast expansive ranges that span continents and oceans. The Rock Pigeon, for example, is a ubiquitous urban resident, dotting rooftops from New York to Shanghai. The Arctic Tern, on the other hand, embarks on epic annual migrations, traversing the entire globe from Arctic breeding grounds to Antarctic feeding grounds.

Birdorable Mallards in locations around the world

Mallards around the world

Adaptability plays a crucial role in cosmopolitan bird species. Consider the Cattle Egret, a clever opportunist, following herds of large herbivores like cattle and buffalo, gleaning insects disturbed by their grazing. This nomadic strategy allows it to thrive in a variety of agricultural landscapes worldwide.

Cosmopolitanism isn't a static concept. It's a dynamic interplay between distribution and adaptation, influenced by factors like climate change, habitat availability, and human activities. The House Sparrow, another cosmopolitan champion, has adapted to human settlements so effectively that its range has expanded alongside our own, even in isolated islands and remote mountain villages.

Yet, cosmopolitanism doesn't imply homogeneity. While sharing a global presence, these birds often exhibit regional variations in their populations, behavior, and even appearance.

Ultimately, the meaning of "cosmopolitan" in the avian world is a tapestry woven from vast distributions, remarkable adaptability, and an inherent defiance of boundaries. These birds remind us that the world is not a collection of isolated maps, but a connected web of life, where feathered ambassadors navigate continents and ecosystems with impressive resilience.

European Starling in New York City

Here are some examples of cosmopolitan bird species:

  1. Peregrine Falcon: Found all over the world, this bird of prey is renowned for its impressive speed and hunting prowess. They nest on cliffs in natural areas and on buildings in urban areas.

  2. Barn Owl: With a distribution across every continent except Antarctica, the barn owl is one of the most widely distributed bird species.

  3. Osprey: This fish-eating bird of prey is found near coastlines worldwide, except for polar regions.

  4. Mallard: Native to most of the Northern Hemisphere, it has been introduced to other areas and is commonly found in parks and urban ponds.

  5. European Starling: Originally from Europe, Asia, and North Africa, this bird has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and North America; it seems to thrive everywhere.

  6. Barn Swallow: These acrobatic aerialists connect continents with their breathtaking migrations. Nesting in farms and buildings across the globe, they spend most of their lives on the wing, catching insects mid-air with stunning precision.

  7. Rock Pigeon: This cosmopolitan species has adapted to urban environments around the world.

  8. House Sparrow: Native to Europe and Asia, these birds have been introduced to and thrived in many parts of the world.

  9. Eurasian Collared-Dove: Originally from Asia and Europe, this species has seen a significant expansion in its range across North America.

  10. Black-crowned Night Heron: Found on every continent except Australia and Antarctica, it is a common species in both freshwater and coastal habitats.

Cute cosmopolitan Birdorable gifts

Imagine a scene straight out of a wildlife documentary, or an AI-rendered, unreal-looking image: flocks of birds, normally seen only in remote northern forests, suddenly descend upon your backyard, filling the air with their calls and vibrant plumage. 

A dramatic, seasonal shift in bird populations is known as an irruption. Let's explore the meaning of this interesting bird term!

What causes irruption?

Bird irruptions are often triggered by fluctuations in food availability. When their usual food sources, like berries, insects, or lemmings, become scarce in their northern habitats, the birds embark on mass southward migrations in search of sustenance. This can happen due to factors like:

Mast years: When certain tree species produce a large, synchronized crop of seeds, it attracts irruptive species like crossbills and grosbeaks.

Insect outbreaks: A boom in insect populations in the north can lead to a subsequent decline as predators flourish, forcing birds to move south for alternative food sources.
Harsh winters: When winter weather arrives early, birds may be forced south to escape the harsh conditions and find food.

What species are affected?

While irruptions can occur with many different bird species, some are more prone to this behavior. Common irruptive birds include:

Finches: Common Redpolls, Pine Siskins, and Evening Grosbeaks are just a few of the species known for their dramatic southward surges in search of seeds and berries. Each year the Finch Research Network reveals a "Winter Finch Forecast" to discuss possible irruptive behavior of native finches and other species.

Owls: Snowy Owls, Northern Hawk Owls, and Great Gray Owls may irrupt southward when their prey populations decline in the north.

Nuthatches: Red-breasted Nuthatches are known for their irruptive movements, often exploring new territories in search of food.

The ecological impact

Bird irruptions can have significant ecological consequences. The influx of birds can disrupt local food webs, benefiting some species and putting pressure on others. Additionally, the introduction of new diseases or parasites from the irrupting birds can pose challenges for resident bird populations.

Flock of Pine Siskins feeding on seed [photo copyright "fishhawk" CC BY 2.0 Deed]

Despite the potential ecological impacts, bird irruptions offer a unique opportunity to observe birds outside their usual ranges. Many birdwatchers are delighted when seldom-seen species can be spotted regularly during the season.

Birdorable Gifts Featuring Irruptive Birds

Bird Term: Lek

Read About Lekking: What It Means And Which Birds Do It

Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek in Nebraska by Gregory "Slobirdr" Smith (CC BY-SA 2.0 Deed)

A lek is a group of male animals, most commonly birds or insects, that gathers as part of a breeding strategy. The males perform displays in an arena-like setting in order to lure observing females into mating.

Lekking in most bird species is like a big mating party where males perform dances, sing songs, and display strange body art to entice females. Females gather around the lek to watch the performances, comparing the potential partners and then eventually accepting the invitation of a male bird to mate. But then the party is over -- males are completely uninvolved in nesting activities like incubation and brooding.

Lesser Prairie-Chicken Lek in New Mexico by Larry Lamsa (CC BY 2.0 Deed)

Although this type of mate selection might seem to indicate a lack of partner fidelity, in many bird species females only come to lekking sites when their (previous) male partner is present.

Some bird species that display lekking behavior include the Long-wattled Umbrellabird, Black Grouse, Sage Grouse, Capercaillie, Kori Bustard, Sharp-tailed Grouse, birds-of-paradise, the Kakapo, and the Greater Prairie-Chicken and Lesser Prairie-Chicken.

Other species that engage in lekking include some types of paper wasps, fruit bats, bullfrogs, and moths.

Sage Grouse Lek in Oregon by Nick Myatt, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (CC BY-SA 2.0 Deed)

Birdorable Gifts Featuring Birds that Lek

Bird Term: Sympatry

Sympatry in Nature: When Species Share the Same Space

Today we'd like to discuss a term that describes two related species or populations that exist in the same area: sympatry. Sympatry can refer to almost any kind of species or populations, but for this discussion we will focus on examples that include birds.

Species that are sympatric live in the same habitat, encounter each other frequently, and may share breeding or feeding locations. Interbreeding between species may occur.

Three species of flamingo in South America are sympatric. The Andean Flamingo, Chilean Flamingo, and James's Flamingo can all be found across a similar range and are known to share nesting sites.

Sympatric species do not necessarily share resources in this mutually beneficial way. The Great Spotted Cuckoo and its parasitic host species the Eurasian Magie are also considered to be sympatric. Cuckoos are brood parasites to their neighbors the magpies.

Sympatry is one of four terms used to describe how species (or populations) relate to each other. Species that exist in adjacent locations are parapatric. Species that are separated can be either peripatric or allopatric.

Birdorable flamingos

Cute Flamingo Gifts

Today we'd like to share with you the meaning of the term altricial, especially as it relates to birds. It is the opposite of a term we shared earlier on the blog: precocial. Let's learn about what it means to be altricial!

The term altricial comes from the Latin alere, which means "to nurse, to rear, or to nourish." An altricial species is one in which the newly hatched or born young need to be cared for by their parents for an amount of time. While a precocial animal may be mobile and relatively independent within days or even hours of being born or hatched, an altricial species must rely on its parents to survive for a period of weeks, months, or even years before it is independent.

In birds, this means youngsters come out of the egg almost completely naked. They are relatively immobile, needing to stay in their nest, and some have closed eyes as well.

While having helpless babies may seem to be a disadvantage, there are advantages to this breeding strategy. Altrical eggs are smaller, relatively speaking, than precocial eggs, resulting in less biological stress to mother birds. Precocial animals are born or hatched with brains relatively large compared to their body size, but don't grow much as they mature. Altricial species are born or hatched with smaller brains which grow as the animal matures. In general, altricial species therefore "have a wider skill set" when they reach full maturity.

Most songbirds have altricial young, as do owls, hawks, herons, and woodpeckers. Rodents, cats, dogs, and humans also have altricial young, which rely on their parents for the first few weeks or decades of life, depending on the species and individual young.

Green Heron Chicks
Green Heron Chicks by South Florida Water Management District (CC BY-ND 2.0)
Baby Tree Swallows
Baby Tree Swallows in Nest by Virginia State Parks (CC BY 2.0)

Cute Green Heron & Tree Swallow Gifts

Birdorable Eurasian Eagle-Owl

When most people think of owls, one of the facts that often comes up is that they are nocturnal. Nocturnal animals are most active during the night, sleeping by day. While most owl species are nocturnal, not all are. Adaptations found in nocturnal animals include enhanced eyesight, hearing, and sense of smell. Besides owls, other bird species known for being nocturnal include the Southern Brown Kiwi, the Kakapo, and the Common Nighthawk. Familiar nocturnal animals include bats, raccoons, and fireflies.

Diurnal animals are most active during the day, and sleep at night. For the most part, all animals first evolved to be diurnal. Nocturnal animals later evolved adaptations for being active at night in order to avoid predators and reduce competition with other species. Advanced color vision is an adaptation seen in diurnal animals. While most birds are diurnal, many species migrate at night, mostly to avoid predation. Animals known for being diurnal include most reptiles, pollinator insect species, and primates (including humans).

There are other terms to describe when animals are active:

  • Crepuscular animals are most active during twilight hours, around dawn and around dusk. Examples of crepuscular birds include the Barred Owl and Chimney Swift.
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  • Cathemeral animals are active during spurts of time during the day and night. The activity is sporadic and occurs at irregular intervals. Cathermal animals are usually active during parts of both daytime and nighttime. Lions and some species of lemur are known for being cathermal.